There is actually an entire range of thunderstorm types, but 4 broad categories are described below:
Single cell storms, usually last 20 to 30 minutes and rarely produce severe weather. True single cell storms are quite rare because the gust front from 1 cell often triggers the growth of another cell. Single cell storms that briefly produce severe weather are referred to as pulse storms.
Multi-cell cluster storms are the most common type of thunderstorm. They consist of a group of cells, moving along as 1 unit, with each cell in a different phase of the thunderstorm life cycle.
Multi-cell line storms, or "squall lines," as they are commonly called, consist of a long line of storms with a continuous, well-developed gust front at the leading edge of the line. The line can be solid, or there can be gaps and breaks in it.
Supercell storms are highly organized thunderstorms. Although rare, they pose an inordinately high threat to life and property. Like the single cell storm, supercell storms consist of 1 main updraft. However, it is extremely strong, reaching estimated speeds of 150-175 miles an hour. The biggest difference between supercells and other thunderstorms is its rotating updraft, called a mesocyclone. This helps the supercell to produce extreme severe weather events, such as giant hail, strong downbursts of 80 miles an hour or more and strong to violent tornadoes.